Chapter 7: Glossary

Airport Land Use Compatibility Plan: A plan adopted by an Airport Land Use Commission, which sets forth policies for promoting compatibility between airports and the land uses that surround them.

All Users: Users of streets, roads and highways including bicyclists, children, persons with disabilities, motorists, movers of commercial goods, pedestrians, users of public transportation and seniors.

Arterial: A major street carrying the traffic of local and collector streets to and from freeways and other major streets, with controlled intersections and generally providing direct access to properties.

Bicycle Boulevard: The Bicycle Boulevard Design Guidebook defines a Bicycle Boulevard as “low volume” and low-speed streets that have been optimized for bicycle travel through treatments such as traffic calming and traffic reductions, signage and pavement markings, and intersection crossing treatments.

Bicycle Lane: According to Caltrans’ Highway Design Manual, Chapter 1000, a bicycle lane is a Class II Bikeway and provides a striped lane for one-way bicycle travel on a street or highway.

Bicycle Path: According to Caltrans’ Highway Design Manual, Chapter 1000, a bicycle path is a Class I Bikeway and provides a completely separated right of way for the exclusive use of bicycles and pedestrians with cross flow by motorists minimized.

California Aviation System Plan (CASP): Prepared by Caltrans every five years to integrate regional system planning on a statewide basis.

California Transportation Commission (CTC): Formulates and evaluates state policies and plans for transportation programs. Approves the RTIP, the STIP, and the SHOPP.

Collector: A street for traffic moving between arterial and local streets, generally providing direct access to properties.

Connectivity: A well-connected circulation system with minimal physical barriers that provides continuous, safe, and convenient travel for all users of streets, roads, and highways.

Conventional Highway: According to the California Highway Manual, a conventional highway is, “a highway without control of access which may or may not be divided.” Grade separations at intersections or access control may be used when justified at spot locations.

Expressway: A highway with full or partial control of access with some intersections at grade.

Federal Highway Administration (FHWA): A component of the US Department of Transportation, established to ensure development of an effective national road and highway transportation system. Approves federal funding for transportation projects.

Federal State Transportation Improvement Program (FSTIP): A three-year list of transportation projects proposed for funding developed by the State in consultation with Metropolitan Planning Organizations and local non-urbanized governments. The FSTIP includes all FTIP projects and other federally funded rural projects.

Federal Transit Administration (FTA): A component of the US Department of Transportation, responsible for administering the federal transit program under the Federal Transit Act, as amended.

Federal Transportation Improvement Program (FTIP): A three-year list of all transportation projects proposed for federal funding, developed as a requirement of funding. In air quality non-attainment areas, the plan must conform to the SIP.

Freeway: A highway serving high-speed traffic with no crossings interrupting the flow of traffic (i.e., no crossings at grade). Streets and Highways Code §23.5, in part, states that “Freeway means a highway in respect to which the owners of abutting lands have no right or easement of access to or from their abutting lands or in respect to which such owners have only limited or restricted right or easement of access.”

Heliport: A facility used for operating, basing, housing, and maintaining helicopters.

Interregional Improvement Program (IIP): One of two broad programs under the STIP. Funded from 25 % of the SHA revenues programmed through the STIP.

Interregional Transportation Improvement Program (ITIP): Funds capital improvements on a statewide basis, including capacity-increasing projects primarily outside urbanized areas. Projects are nominated by Caltrans and submitted to the CTC for inclusion in the STIP. Has a four-year time frame and is updated biennially by the CTC.

Level of Service (LOS) is a qualitative measure describing operational conditions as perceived by motorists within a traffic stream. LOS generally describes these conditions in terms such as speed and travel time, freedom to maneuver, traffic interruptions, comfort and convenience, and safety. Current LOS conditions are based on the latest traffic counts. Projected LOS conditions are based on growth factors derived from historical growth trends.

Local Scenic Highway: A segment of a state or local highway or street that a city or county has designated as “scenic.”

Local Street: A street providing direct access to properties and designed to discourage through traffic.

Local Transportation Commission (LTC): The Mono County LTC is the Regional Transportation Planning Authority (RTPA) for Mono County.

Major Thoroughfare: A major passageway such as a street, highway, railroad line, or navigable waterway that serves high traffic volumes.

Multi-modal Transportation Network: A well-balanced circulation system that includes multiple modes of transportation that meets the needs of all users of streets, roads, and highways.

National Scenic Byway: A segment of a state or interstate highway route that the USFS has designated as a scenic byway or which another federal agency has designated as a national scenic and recreational highway.

Official County Scenic Highway: A segment of a county highway the Director of Caltrans has designated as “scenic.”

Official State Scenic Highway: A segment of a state highway identified in the Master Plan of State Highways Eligible for Official Scenic Highway Designations and designated by the Director of Caltrans.

Paratransit: Transportation systems such as jitneys, carpooling, vanpooling, taxi service, and Dial-A-Ride arrangements.

Recreational Trails: Public areas that include pedestrian trails, bikeways, equestrian trails, boating routes, trails, and areas suitable for use by persons with disabilities, trails and areas for off-highway recreational vehicles, and Nordic (cross country) skiing trails.

Regional Improvement Program (RIP): One of two broad programs under the STIP. Funded from 75% of the STIP funds, divided by formula among fixed county shares. Each county selects the projects to be funded from its county share in the RTIP.

Regional Transportation Improvement Program (RTIP): A list of proposed transportation projects submitted to the California Transportation Commission by the RTPAs for state funding. Has a four-year time frame and is updated biennially by the CTC.

Regional Transportation Plan (RTP): Plan prepared biennially by regional transportation planning agencies (e.g., Mono County Local Transportation Commission, “LTC”) that describes existing and projected transportation needs, actions and financing for a 20-year period.

Route: A sequence of roadways, paths, and/or trails that allow people to travel from place to place.

Scenic Highway Corridor: The visible area outside the highway’s right of way, generally described as “the view from the road.”

State Highway Account (SHA): The primary State funding source for transportation improvements. Includes revenue from the state fuel tax, truck weight fees, and federal highway funds. Provides funding for a)  non-capital outlays (maintenance, operations, etc.), b)  STIP, c)  SHOPP, and d) local assistance.

State Highway Operations and Protection Program (SHOPP): California state program intended to maintain the integrity of the state highway system, focusing primarily on safety and rehabilitation issues. A four-year program of projects approved by the CTC separately from the STIP cycle. See further information.

State Implementation Plan (SIP): An air quality plan developed by the California Air Resources Board in cooperation with local air boards to attain and maintain Federal Clean Air Standards. See for further information.

State Transit Assistance (STA): Funds derived from the Public Transportation Account. Fifty percent is allocated to Caltrans, 50% to the Regional Transportation Planning Authorities “RTPAs” (e.g., Mono County Local Transportation Commission “LTC”). The funds allocated to the RTPAs are available for mass transit projects (50%) and transit operators (50%).

State Transportation Improvement Program (STIP): Includes transportation programs proposed in RTIPs and ITIPs, approved for funding by the CTC. See for further information.

Terminal: A station, stop, or other transportation infrastructure along or at the conclusion of a transportation route. Terminals typically serve transportation operators and passengers by air, rail, road, or sea (i.e., airports, railroad depots, transit stops and stations, and ports and harbors.

Transit-Oriented Development (TOD): A moderate- to high-density development located within an easy walk or bicycle of a major transit stop, generally with a mix of residential, employment, and shopping opportunities. TOD encourages walking, bicycling, and transit use without excluding the automobile.

Walkability: The measurement of how walkable a community is. Walkable communities typically include footpaths, sidewalks, street crossings, or other pedestrian-oriented infrastructure

Yosemite Area Regional Transportation System (YARTS): A regional system providing scheduled service from Madera, Mariposa and Mono counties to Yosemite, connecting with the Yosemite National Park shuttle service. In Mono County, the service departs from Mammoth Lakes, June Lake, and Lee Vining. See for further information.